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زبان شناس آینده - معنی ain't در زبان انگلیسی
 
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مدیر وبلاگ : خاموش نوربخش
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اصطلاح ain't در زبان انگلیسی نخستین بار در اواسط یا اواخر سده ی هجدهم میلادی به ثبت رسید. عمده استفاده از این اصطلاح در انگلیسی امریکا، خاصّه لهجه ی سیاه پوستانِ جنوب امریکا، بوده است. ain't در اصل مخفف are not یا احیاناً is not بوده، امّا بر خلاف مخفف های دیگر، من جمله won't و don't، هرگز با استقبال منقدین ادبی انگلیسی زبان مواجه نگردید. این بدان سبب بود که اصطلاح ain't ثبات معنایی مشخصی نداشته و در بسیاری از مواقع ممکن است به سهولت موجب سردرگمی خواننده یا مخاطب گردد؛ مخصوصاً که رفته رفته در لهجه ی سیاهان جنوب امریکا با توسعه ی معنایی از ain't برای ارجاع به have not، has not، am not و حتّی did not، does not و do not نیز استفاده شد. از این رو واژه ی ain't در سطح محاوره باقی ماند.

معمولاً پرکاربردترین استفاده ها از ain't به جای am not و is not می باشد. پس از این دو معمولاً are not، have not و has not ارجحیت دارند. بیشترین میزان استفاده از این اصطلاح در گویش ایالات جنوبی امریکا (چه میان سیاهان و چه سفیدپوستان) می باشد. البته سیاهان شمال شرقی امریکا (بوستون، نیویورک، نیوجرسی و غیره) نیز از این اصطلاح به کرّات استفاده می کنند. این امر بدان جهت است که قاطبه ی سیاه پوستان این نواحی در اصل مهاجرانی از ایالات جنوبی بودند که پس از پایان جنگ های انفصال و آزادی بردگان از محیط نژادزده ی ایالات جنوبی گریخته و در قالب جریان های مهاجرتی در طی یک صد سال پس از جنگ خود را به ایالات شمال شرقی (که فضای تعصب نژادی بسیار رقیق تر داشته و دارند) رسانده و در عین حال گویش جنوبی خویش را نیز به همراه آورده اند. تأثیر گویش جنوبی سیاه پوستان ایالات شمال شرقی تا حدّی است که حتی گاهی در ترانه های خواننده ای سفیدپوست مانند امینِم، که بزرگ شده ی شهر دیترویت در شمال شرقی امریکاست، نیز ممکن است اصطلاح ain't به چشم آید. این اصطلاح، مانند دیگر مظاهر گویش امریکایی انگلیسی، راه خویش را به درون گویش بریتانیایی باز کرده است.  

تنها نکته ای که باید به هنگام استفاده از این اصطلاح به یاد داشته باشیم این است که به هیچ عنوان در نصّ مقالات، کتب و متون علمی از ain't استفاده نکنیم. در این میان در داستان ها، آن جا که لحن محاوره ای به کار می رود، و احیاناً در متون زبان شناختی مربوطه می توان از ain't استفاده نمود.

در ذیل برخی از مصادیق اصطلاح ain't در زبان انگلیسی را شاهد هستیم:

The weakness of movies, once so deliciously amusing, ain't funny anymore

ضعف فیلم ها، که زمانی به طرز دلنشینی مفرّح بود، دیگر بامزه نیست. (جمله ای از «ریچارد شیکِل» منتقد سینمایی سابق مجله ی تایم امریکا)؛ در این مصداق ain't در معنای is not به کار رفته است.

Thank God we are alive, ain't we?

خدا را شکر که زنده ایم، مگر نه؟ (برگرفته از خاطرات ویلیام هیکی-متنی بریتانیایی)؛ در این جا ain't در معنای are not به کار رفته است.

Ain't I a Woman?

مگر من زن نیستم؟ (عنوان خطابه ای از سوجرنر تروث، طرفدار فسخ برده داری در امریکا)؛ در این جا ain't در معنایam not به کار رفته است.





نوع مطلب : ترجمه، اتیمولوژی (ریشه شناسی)، 
برچسب ها : aint در انگلیسی، ain't در انگلیسی، معنی aint به انگلیسی، ترجمه ی ain't به انگلیسی، ain't in Persian، کلمه ain't،
لینک های مرتبط :

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چهارشنبه 6 شهریور 1392
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