زبان شناس آینده
Scientia Potentia Est
وبلاگی علمی در باب موضوعات زبانشناختی
A scientific blog concerning linguistic subjects
مدیر وبلاگ : خاموش نوربخش
شاید عنوان این مطلب در زبان فارسی خنده دار باشد امّا به سادگی می توان این عنوان را بدون تغییر مفهوم به زبان هایی مانند انگلیسی، آلمانی و یا کردی (گویش کورمانجی) برگرداند و دیگر خنده دار نباشد!
این امر به سبب تمایزی است که در زبان های مذکور، و بسیاری دیگر از زبان ها، میان مفهوم «دختر در خانواده» و «دختر در معنای عامّ» وجود دارد. این تمایز مفهومی در برخی زبان ها، من جمله فارسی (و بسیاری از زبان های نوین ایرانی) از بین رفته است و نتیجتاً هر دو مفهوم فوق الذکر تحت عنوان یک واژه ادا می گردند. بدین ترتیب در زبان انگلیسی دو واژه یdaughter و girl مفاهیم مزبور را به ترتیب عرضه می کنند. در زبان کردی این تمایز مفهومی در گویش های جنوبی و مرکزی (به تأسی از فارسی) از میان رفته، امّا در گویش شمالی (کورمانجی) باقی مانده است. در گویش کورمانجی دو مفهوم مزبور را به ترتیب با این واژه ها بیان می دارند: «دوت» و «کَچ».
جالب است که معادل های نخستین مفهوم، یعنی «دختر در بستر خانواده»، در هر دو زبان کردی و انگلیسی هم ریشه بوده و نمایان گر ریشه ی باستانی هندواروپایی می باشند. واژه ی انگلیسی daughter (با تلفظی شبیه به «دوُتر») و «دوت» در کردی کورمانجی مأخوذ از ریشه ی هندواروپایی مشترکی هستند که از ریشه ی فعلی به معنی «دوشیدن» اشتقاق یافته است. همان طور که از این مفهوم بر می آید دختر، در میان عشایر باستانی هندواروپایی زبان، وظیفه ی دوشیدن دام ها را عهده دار بوده و معنی تحت اللفظی نامش نیز «دوشنده» است.
در زبان فارسی همین ریشه عمومیت یافته و در مفهوم عامّ برای دختر نیز به کار می رود، در حالی که برخی زبان های هندواروپایی، مانند انگلیسی، کردی (گویش کورمانجی)و آلمانی، کماکان تمایز باستانی میان بازتاب زبان شناختی این دو مفهوم را حفظ نموده اند.
نوع مطلب : اتیمولوژی (ریشه شناسی)، زبان شناسی، زبان های ایرانی،
برچسب ها : دختر در انگلیسی، daughter and girl، difference between daughter and girl، daughter in Kurdish، girl in Kurdish، دختر در کردی، دختر در زبان های هندواروپایی،
لینک های مرتبط :
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